Human activity‐induced earthquakes are emerging as a global issue, and revealing its underlying mechanisms is essential for earthquake hazard mitigation and energy development. We investigated the relationship between the seismotectonic model and seismic sequences from moderate 4.3 and 5.2 earthquakes that occurred in February and September 2019, respectively, in the Weiyuan anticline of Sichuan basin, China. We found that the 5.2 earthquake ruptured a back thrust of structural wedges and released most aftershocks near the wedge tip. However, the two foreshocks of the 4.3 earthquake sequence occurred in hydrofractured Silurian shale at depth of 2.5–3 km, and the mainshock ruptured the overlying oblique tear fault at a depth of . Hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary cover of this block may induce earthquakes through fluid pressure diffusion in the Silurian shale and through poroelastic effects on back thrusts within structural wedges, respectively. We assessed the hazard potential of four seismic sources in the Weiyuan block and suggest it is critical to conduct a coupled flow‐geomechanics assessment and management on induced seismicity and related cascading effects in the densely inhabited and seismically active Sichuan basin.