The Earth’s interconnected and dynamical systems operate on a spectrum of time scales from millions of years to fractions of a second. Although the evolution of the Earth and its deep interior are beyond the time span of human observations, understanding of many natural phenomena operating on human time scales has benefited from direct scientific observation. Continuous processes and those that are repeated over time shape the environment we live in. As we are faced with unprecedented changes to climate, understanding the deeper patterns and trends in natural systems through time has taken on new importance (Research Data Alliance,...

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