The Wood–Anderson (WA) torsion seismograph, used by Richter (1935) for the definition of the local magnitude (ML) of an earthquake, has been abandoned over time due to the cumbersome nature of its use. With the progress of technology, modern digital broadband (BB) instruments have replaced older instruments such as the WA, and the equivalent ML, obtained from simulated WA seismograms after convolution of the recorded BB data with a proper transfer function (Bormann, 2002a,b), has replaced the WAML.

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Despite the paucity of WA instruments today, the ML...

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