For nearly a century, earthquakes apparently triggered by fluid injection have been observed in many parts of the world (National Research Council [NRC], 2012). Although injection‐related seismicity is a well‐known phenomenon, recent years have seen a dramatic increase in earthquake occurrence apparently associated with oil and gas development. This increase has been most notable in the central and eastern United States (Ellsworth, 2013). Recent occurrences of felt events in areas of significant populations have brought attention to this issue from the public, oil and gas operators, regulators, and academics.

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Though fluid disposal and hydraulic fracturing both...

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