Although the phenomenon of earthquakes induced by the subsurface injection of fluids has been recognized, and the basic mechanisms understood, for many decades (e.g., Healy et al., 1968), the recent increase in seismicity associated with oil and gas development, including large damaging events (e.g., Ellsworth, 2013; Keranen et al., 2013; Hough, 2014; Rubinstein et al., 2014) makes clear the need to better understand the processes controlling such seismicity and to develop techniques to mitigate the associated seismic hazard.

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The relationship of fault stress, fault strength, and fluid pressure at the onset of...

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