In recent years, there has been much interest in seismicity induced by hydrocarbon operations (e.g., Jones et al., 2014). In the United States, it is mainly the reinjection of waste water that caused a major increase in the number of recorded earthquakes (Ellsworth, 2013). In contrast, lower magnitude earthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing (HF) of tight reservoirs has attracted less interest. However, HF in western Canada has been associated with earthquakes of moderate magnitudes and more frequent occurrences. Three magnitude 3.5–3.6 events occurred in northeast British Columbia in 2010–2011 and a magnitude 4.4 in northern Alberta...

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