Seismic‐hazard analyses and stress tests for critical infrastructures show limitations in the treatment of extreme events. These extreme events can be great earthquakes and/or their cascading effects, generally not foreseen in risk analysis and management (e.g., Komendantova et al., 2014). For instance, earthquake ruptures are known to potentially propagate over several segments (e.g., Eberhart‐Phillips et al., 2003; Fliss et al., 2005), yet fault segments are still modeled as individual faults in most regional seismic‐hazard models based on expert opinion and on limited paleoseismic data. Rate anomalies (known as the bulge) in the Uniform California...

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