The representation theorem (equation 1.1) (Maruyama, 1963; Burridge and Knopoff, 1964; Haskell, 1964) relates slip on the fault to ground displacement at an arbitrary point in the field and can be deceptively simple as follows:  
in which forumla is the nth component of the ground displacement recorded at position forumla and time t; forumla is the ith component of slip (a discontinuity in displacement field) on the fault plane Σ at position ξ and time τ; νj is the jth component of the normal to fault plane, cijpq is the...

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