Seismic risk assessment is carried out combining hazard, exposure, and vulnerability models (United Nations Disaster Relief Organization [UNDRO], 1979). Exposure in this context refers to the elements at risk, which can be buildings, population, lifeline systems, or socioeconomic activities. Exposure data may vary depending on the scale of analysis, going from detailed descriptions of characteristics and locations of structural elements to composite models aggregated to larger geographical entities, such as administrative units, cities, or countries. When significant structural characteristics like the construction type or the building height are available, the vulnerability of structures here referred to as physical...

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