The easiest building parameter to determine is the elastic fundamental resonance period, or its inverse, the fundamental frequency, preferentially used in seismological studies. This period/frequency is directly related to the building stiffness and can be linked to external inputs (acceleration, soil response, etc.), internal history (construction material and quality, structural design, seismic history, etc.), and more complicated factors such as soil–structure interaction. This frequency is generally obtained through building modeling for the most recent structures but is much more complicated or even impossible to determine for old buildings, the blueprints of which are generally not available.

This crucial parameter can...

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