Probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment (PSHA) consists of components that are largely empirical with some physical insights (e.g., empirical ground‐motion prediction equations and the Gutenberg–Richter magnitude distribution), components that are primarily based on simplified physics with some support from empirical data (e.g., the characteristic earthquake model, Schwartz and Coppersmith, 1984), and geologic information that requires a lot of resources to collect but is yet difficult to assure completeness (e.g., location and dimension of faults). Empirical models do not always have clear physical meanings, and physical models are not always empirically verifiable in all situations. Together with the geologic information that is...

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