The 2012 Brawley earthquake swarm occurred in the Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ) within the Imperial Valley of southern California (Fig. 1). The BSZ is the northernmost extensional segment of the Pacific–North America plate boundary system. Johnson and Hill (1982) used the distribution of seismicity since the 1930s to outline the geographical extent of the BSZ, defining boundaries of the BSZ as shown in Figure 1. Its north–south extent ranges from the northern section of the Imperial fault, starting approximately 10 km north of the United States–Mexico international border and connecting to the southern end of the San Andreas...

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