Investigations of geological structures, such as layer thickness, depth to bedrock, and tectonic features, are important tasks for geologists and engineers. Direct investigational methods, such as boreholes and trenches, can provide accurate data. However, these direct methods are usually expensive and time consuming. More often, geophysical methods that are less expensive and faster to implement (e.g., seismic and electric surveys and ground penetrating radar) are used. However, these geophysical methods may be difficult, or even impossible, to implement in some cases, such as regions with steep slopes or those highly urbanized. In contrast, the single‐station horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral‐ratio (HVSR) method (...

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