More than 100 years ago, a moderate-size earthquake affected several towns within the Lower Tagus Valley with major destruction in the town of Benavente and two other villages (Fonseca and Vilanova 2010). The earthquake, known as the 1909 Benavente earthquake, was studied rigorously by both contemporaneous (Chofat and Bensaude 1912) and modern scientists (e.g., Stich et al. 2005). Other historical earthquakes that caused major damage within the Lower Tagus Valley include the poorly constrained 1344 Mw 6.7 earthquake, the 1531 Mw 6.9 earthquake, the 1755 Mw 8.5 earthquake, and the...

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