Following both the 4 September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield and 22 February 2011 Mw 6.2 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquakes, Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) team members from the United States and New Zealand visited the affected areas to assess geotechnical related damage (e.g., Allen et al.2010a, b). As shown in Figure 1, liquefaction was pervasive in large portions of the region after both earthquakes. The widespread liquefaction caused extensive damage to residential properties, water and wastewater networks, high-rise buildings, and bridges. For example, nearly 15,000 residential houses and properties were severely damaged...

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