On 4 September 2010, a magnitude M = 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region on the South Island of New Zealand. The epicenter of the earthquake was located near Darfield, about 40 km west of the central business district (CBD) of the city of Christchurch and at a depth of about 10 km. Extensive damage was inflicted on lifelines and residential houses due to widespread liquefaction and lateral spreading in areas close to major streams, rivers, and wetlands throughout the city of Christchurch and the town of Kaiapoi. In the months following the Darfield M 7.1 earthquake, numerous aftershocks were...

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