New Zealand's active tectonics are dominated by the oblique convergence of the Pacific plate and the Australian plate, which produces earthquakes, volcanoes, active geological deformation, and steep terrain. The tectonic setting (Figure 1) makes New Zealand one of the most seismically active countries in the world with more than 15,000 earthquakes (ML ≥ 2) located per year ( Shallow earthquakes (depth <40 km) cluster in a band that extends along the east coast of the North Island above the Hikurangi subduction zone, through the western South Island in proximity to the Alpine fault, to...

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