Over the past 15 years, we have developed 3-D seismic velocity models for many parts of New Zealand through individual regional studies using local earthquake data, often with regional temporary seismic networks. The permanent seismic network and earthquakes of M > 5 during the period 2001–2009 inclusive are shown in Figure 1. Since most of New Zealand is seismically active, most of the country is covered by 3-D velocity studies. While the motivation for the regional studies has been to understand crustal structure and tectonic processes, there are many applications of 3-D velocity models.

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Earth properties are inherently 3-D....

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