Modern ground-motion prediction models use datasets of recorded ground-motion parameters at multiple stations during different earthquakes and in various source regions to generate equations that are later used to predict site-specific ground motions. These models describe the distribution of ground motion in terms of a median and a logarithmic standard deviation (e.g., Strasser et al. 2009). This standard deviation, generally referred to as sigma (σ), exerts a very strong influence on the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (e.g., Bommer and Abrahamson 2006). Although there are numerous examples of sigma being neglected in...

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