Fifteen years have passed since the M 6.9 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake struck the west side of Osaka Bay during the predawn hours of 17 January 1995. The earthquake started near the northeast end of Awaji Island and ruptured simultaneously to the northwest and southeast from there. To the southeast, right-lateral faulting extended about 20 km from the epicenter, and reached the Earth's surface. To the northwest, rupture extended approximately 25 km, which brought it directly under the city of Kobe. Faulting did not quite reach the surface in Kobe, but the direction and speed of rupture exerted a strong forward...

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