On 25 May 2009, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) announced that it had conducted a second nuclear test, without providing information of exact time, location, and yield. On that day, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported detecting a magnitude 4.7 seismic tremor in an aseismic region in North Korea (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009hbaf.php; also archived copy at http://geophysics.geo.sunysb.edu/wen/NK/usgs_north_korea_2009_test.webarchive). The seismic waveform features recorded at the seismic stations around the globe for the event exhibit characteristics of an explosion. However, the exact location of the test remains elusive.

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Seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions relies on seismic...

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