Ground truth seismic sources and receivers are the seismologist's equivalent of the geodesist's “benchmark.” Geodesists measure distances between benchmarks on the surface of the Earth to infer the Earth's shape. Seismologists measure seismic travel-times between sources and receivers to image the Earth's interior velocities. However, unlike geodesists who precisely locate both ends of their benchmark network in a well-defined coordinate system, seismologists rarely know the precise location (or origin time) of their source “benchmark.” Consequently, source location biases fold into tomographic images of the Earth's interior. Joint source location and velocity inversion mitigates but does not remove these fundamental biases...

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