Aftershock activity constitutes one of the largest risks in the aftermath of an earthquake. Aftershocks shake already weakened structures, and if an aftershock is closer to a population center than the original rupture it may cause even more severe local shaking. The 1992 M 6.4 Big Bear aftershock, for example, which occurred several hours after and 40 km to the west of the 1992 M 7.3 Landers, California, mainshock, caused substantially more damage to the city of Big Bear than the Landers earthquake. Even more damaging was the 22 August 1952 M 5.8 Bakersfield, California, aftershock of the M 7.5...

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