Local geologic and soil conditions can greatly increase the intensity of earthquake ground shaking (Kramer 1996). These local site effects are particularly significant at sites with deep, soft soil deposits, although hard rock sites may also exhibit amplification (Siddiqqi and Atkinson 2002). Estimation of this localized site response can be accomplished using theoretical or empirical methods. Theoretical modeling requires extensive characterization of a site's near-surface geology, as well as the use of sophisticated computing methods. In contrast, empirical approaches require only ground-motion data records from the site. The relative ease of application has popularized the use...

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