Source rupture characteristics have significant effects on the level and the distribution of near-source earthquake ground motions. The present state of knowledge concerning the impacts of source characteristics on ground motions makes a quantitative analysis of the effect of fault rupture on the near-source ground motions possible. To simplify incorporating source effects into seismic hazard analysis models, they may be classified into two groups: rupture directivity and rupture heterogeneity. Rupture directivity reflects the effects of the direction of rupture on the fault as viewed from the site. This characteristic is important even in the case of homogeneous rupture, which corresponds...

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