The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is the most active region in the central and eastern United States. At least three large earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7.0 occurred along the New Madrid faults (Figure 1) between winter 1811 and spring 1812 (Nuttli, 1973; Johnston, 1996; Hough et al., 2000; Bakun and Hopper, 2004). The paleo-liquefaction records (Tuttle et al., 2002) suggest that large earthquakes similar to the 1811–1812 events occurred twice in the past 1,200 years in the NMSZ. Although the causes of these large intraplate earthquakes are...

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