We have seen over the last few decades the development of seismic hazard assessment. It is now fairly routine to set up source models for point, line, and area seismic sources and to combine these with attenuation models to produce assessments of hazard that are specific to given locations. Source models take into account earthquake mechanisms and recurrence intervals for active faults, and strong-motion attenuation functions incorporate site conditions. Future developments will no doubt improve our assessment of hazard, perhaps even including time-dependence, as our understanding of the dynamics of the generation of earthquakes improves. But there is another development...

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