Although most seismic damage occurs within 10-20 km of an event, long-period waves can cause destruction at much greater distances. The long-period component of seismic ground motion generated by earthquakes attenuates more slowly with distance than higher frequencies and so persists to much greater ranges. Large-scale structures such as tall buildings and big tanks can resonate with the long-period ground motion because their own natural periods are in the same frequency band. The severity of shaking can be such that panic is produced for people in high-rise buildings from earthquakes several hundreds of kilometers away (Pan, 1995; Pan...

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