Recent studies to assess very long-term seismic hazard in the United States and in Europe have brought the issue of upper limits on earthquake ground motions into the arena of problems requiring attention from the engineering seismological community. Few engineering projects are considered sufficiently critical to warrant the use of annual frequencies of exceedance so low that ground-motion estimates may become unphysical if limiting factors are not considered, but for nuclear waste repositories, for example, the issue is of great importance. The definition of upper bounds on earthquake ground motions also presents an exciting challenge for researchers in the area...

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