Turkey experienced two major earthquakes in 1999 which occurred 86 days apart on the North Anatolian Fault system. On 17 August 1999, the Mw 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake broke the 140 km long western part of the 1,200 km North Anatolian Fault in a multiple rupture process. The fault rupture in the eastward direction propagated almost to Düzce and stopped 12 km away from the city. On 12 November 1999, the Mw 7.2 Düzce earthquake ruptured another 40 km segment of the same fault that was broken during the August event, but further toward the east. The second rupture...

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