In the environmental field, the Precautionary Principle has recently been promoted as a guiding principle for decision making. Statements of the Precautionary Principle are varied, so my first task in this discussion is to provide a satisfactory definition. A starting point is the statement from the Wingspread conference in Racine, Wisconsin in 1998. The central statement of this version is: “When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. In this context the proponent of an activity, rather than...

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