The most critical and controversial input parameter to a seismic hazard analysis is generally the regional ground-motion relations, which define the peak ground motion and response spectral parameters as functions of earthquake magnitude and distance. For seismic hazard applications in California, these relations have been derived by regression analysis of recorded strong-motion data (e.g.,Boore et al., 1997; Abrahamson and Silva, 1997; Sadigh et al., 1997). For regions beyond California, such as eastern North America (ENA), regional ground-motion relations cannot be reliably derived from direct regression of strong-motion data, because these data are too sparse in...

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