Doppler radar is currently used with considerable success to detect tornadic storms in turbulent weather systems, but such radar cannot determine when the tornado is in actual contact with the ground. Recent research has shown that as a tornado makes contact with the ground surface a significant amount of kinetic energy is expended in overcoming the resistance of the wind flow at the fluid/solid interface (Tatom, 1993; Tatom et al., 1995). This expended energy is transformed into a combination of heat, acoustic waves, and seismic vibrations, as shown in Figure 1. Although quantification of the...

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