For more than a century seismographs have been the main source of data for seismological research. Their design principles and performance have significantly changed from the early seismoscopes to the present broadband instruments. Knowledge of their characteristics and evolution is important in two ways. Firstly, the history and evolution of seismological research is closely linked to the progress in developing appropriate instrumentation. Secondly, accurate knowledge of the periods of operation and recording parameters of old instruments allows us to reanalyze their records on the basis of modern algorithms and theoretical concepts and thus to obtain new results on older 20th-century...

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