On 7 September 1999 at 3:00 pm local time (11:56:50 GMT) an earthquake of Mw = 5.9 struck Athens, the capital of Greece. The intensity reached IX in the northwest out-skirts of the city (Figure 1), where 143 people were killed and more than 2,000 injured. More than 100,000 people were rendered homeless.

Most of the damage occurred within 15 km of the epicenter. Structural damage decreased rapidly with the distance from the epicenter, where it was influenced by poor foundation conditions (building on top of artificial fill) and in certain cases by local topography.

The maximum...

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