Earthquakes are a prime example of a complex natural process that is not well understood, yet has immense societal relevance. Mechanical energy stored in crustal rocks over centuries and millennia is released during earthquake ruptures within seconds, producing at times catastrophic destruction and loss of life. Seismic hazard and risks continue to increase rapidly, due to urbanization and development of high‐risk utility plants (chemical and nuclear), as well as critical distributed infrastructure (water, energy, and communications) below and above the surface (e.g., Bilham, 2009; Porter et al., 2011; Detweiler and Wein, 2017). Historical earthquakes led to...

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