In 1989 the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, 1989) wrote: “The growing ability of scientists to make accurate predictions about natural phenomena provides convincing evidence that we really are gaining in our understanding of how the world works.” This statement addresses longstanding (and sometimes harsh) criticism of science raised at different historical times by renowned philosophers and prominent government officials (e.g., Theocharis and Psimopoulos, 1987), criticism that sparked widespread suspicion about scientists and their discoveries. According to the statement from AAAS, predictive capability is the distinctive feature that makes science different from other human enterprises such...

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