ABSTRACT

Absolute location of the announced Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) nuclear test on 6 January 2016 is constrained by fitting associated, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)‐based ground displacement with elastic finite‐element modeling of an underground explosion source, including the effects of topography. The other five announced nuclear tests are located using arrival times and differential arrival times of regional and teleseismic body waves and constraints on the 6 January 2016 event location. Nuclear tests on 6 January 2016, 9 September 2016, and 3 September 2017 are under the summit ridge of Mt. Mantap, and tests on 25 May 2009 and 12 February 2013 are south of the topographic crest under the steep southern face of the mountain. The first test on 9 October 2006 was located near the crest of a separate topographic ridge approximately 2.87 km east of the 6 January 2016 event. Several unannounced events have occurred in the vicinity of the test site. The location uncertainty ellipse of an event approximately 8 min 30 s after the 2017 announced test covers the DPRK test site and is likely to have occurred there. Additional events on 27 September 2017 and 12 October 2017 are 4–8 km northwest of the test site, and location probability regions do not overlap the test site.

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