ABSTRACT

We present a brief description of the Colombian geophysical monitoring networks, mainly from the seismic and volcanic points of view. We present also a description of two significant events that defined the development of the instrumental geophysical infrastructure in Colombia: (1) the 31 March 1983 Popayán earthquake (Mw 5.5, H=4  km deep) and (2) the eruption of the 13 November 1985 Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (VEI‐3). Seven geophysical networks (seismological, strong motion, volcanological, and Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite System [GPS/GNSS] networks) that are currently monitoring the Colombian territory are described in terms of the operational coverage, technical parameters, and scientific purposes. Networks described correspond to (1) the National Seismological Network of Colombia (RSNC, with 65 stations); (2) the National Strong Motion Network (RNAC, with 177 stations); (3) the Volcanological observatories, located in the Manizales, Pasto, and Popayan cities and comprised of permanent stations that monitor seismicity, deformation, thermal changes in waters and rocks, SO2 and water emission, as well as gravity, magnetic, and electrical changes in the 12 most active volcanoes of Colombia; (4) the GPS/GNSS Network for Geodynamics (GeoRED, with 108 Continuously Operating Reference Stations, and 382 field stations); (5) the “Sabana de Bogotá” Seismological Network (RSSB), with one short‐period (T=1  s) and eight broadband (T=120  s) stations, of which three are monitoring seismic, electrical, and magnetic anomalies; (6) the South Western Colombian Seismological Network (OSSO, with 11 stations); and (7) the Quindío Seismological Observatory (OSQ, with 9 stations). Deployment of these networks has been possible due to the active participation of state‐owned and private institutions. Their continuous operation has allowed the growth of the scientific infrastructure countrywide, and has increased knowledge about the geodynamical behavior of this region.

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