Underdetermination is a condition affecting all problems in seismic imaging. It manifests mainly in the nonuniqueness of the models inferred from the data. This condition is exacerbated if simplifying hypotheses like isotropy are discarded in favor of more realistic anisotropic models that, although supported by seismological evidence, require more free parameters. Investigating the connections between underdetermination and anisotropy requires the implementation of solvers which explore the whole family of possibilities behind nonuniqueness and allow for more informed conclusions about the interpretation of the seismic models. Because these aspects cannot be investigated using traditional iterative linearized inversion schemes with regularization constraints that collapse the infinite possible models into a unique solution, we explore the application of transdimensional Bayesian Monte Carlo sampling to address the consequences of underdetermination in anisotropic seismic imaging. We show how teleseismic waves of P and S phases can constrain upper‐mantle anisotropy and the amount of additional information these data provide in terms of uncertainty and trade‐offs among multiple fields.

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