Our objective is to improve the view of the seismicity in the Caucasus region using instrumental data between 1951 and 2019. To create a comprehensive catalog, we combine the bulletins of local agencies and the International Seismological Centre, and use an advanced single‐event location algorithm, iLoc, to obtain better locations. We show that relocations with iLoc, using travel‐time predictions from the 3D upper mantle velocity model, Regional Seismic Travel Time, improve the locations. Then, using the iLoc results as initial locations and the ground‐truth events identified in the iLoc results as fix points, we apply Bayesloc, a multiple‐event location algorithm, to simultaneously relocate the entire seismicity of the Caucasus region. We demonstrate that the simultaneous relocation of the seismicity with Bayesloc clarifies the location and geometry of major active structures accommodating ongoing convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian continents between the Black and Caspian Seas. Among our major findings is the confirmation of widespread seismicity in the mantle beneath the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus and central Caspian, resulting from north‐dipping subduction of the Kura and South Caspian basins and the identification of a discrete band of crustal seismicity beneath the southern flank of the Greater Caucasus.