On 8 January 2022, Menyuan County, China, was struck by an Mw 6.6 earthquake that caused surface rupture in the epicentral area and severe damage to an important railway bridge. The earthquake was recorded by only one strong‐motion station, which presents a challenge for quantitatively estimating the extent of the ground‐motion distribution caused by this event. In this study, the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D code), which solves the elastodynamic equations and can capture the full physics of seismic‐wave propagation, is employed for broadband (0–10 Hz) ground‐motion simulations of this earthquake. A hybrid kinematic source is developed in which the final slip distribution combines a prescribed asperity model based on Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data (as a source for low‐frequency radiation) and a stochastic part (as a source for high‐frequency radiation), which introduces spatial heterogeneities to the prescribed asperity model. The numerical approach is first validated by modeling the well‐recorded 1994 Northridge earthquake before modeling the Menyuan earthquake. The simulated ground motion is compared with the only observed strong‐motion station record, as well as with empirical Next Generation Attenuation‐West2 ground‐motion models. Then, topography effect in Menyuan earthquake is studied in detail. The simulated ground motions with and without surface topography indicate that the topography tends to focus and scatter the seismic wavefield, resulting in amplification of the ground shaking. The results show a significant correlation between the peak ground velocity (PGV) and topography. The PGV amplification caused by topography effects is period dependent, and its peak amplification reaches up to 50% within a typical resonance period (1–2 s). It could be inferred that the railway bridge probably vibrated in resonance and suffered severe damage owing to the amplified long‐period ground motion caused by the topography.

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