ABSTRACT

The 2019 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake sequence produced observable crustal deformation over much of central and southern California, as well as surface rupture over several tens of kilometers. To obtain a detailed picture of the fault slip involved in the 4 July M 6.4 foreshock and 6 July M 7.1 mainshock, we combine strong‐motion seismic waveforms with crustal deformation observations to obtain kinematic and static slip models of both events. We sample the regional seismic wavefield for both the foreshock and mainshock with three‐component records from 31 stations of the California Integrated Seismic Network. The deformation observations include Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), and borehole strainmeter recordings of the dynamic strain field. These data collectively constrain the kinematic coseismic slip distributions of the events, with measurements variously observing coseismic slip from one event (e.g., seismic waveforms, kinematic solutions from continuous GPS, and strainmeter time series) or coseismic slip from both events combined (InSAR). We find that the foreshock ruptured two separate faults, one with left‐lateral strike slip on a northeast–southwest‐trending fault and the other with right‐lateral strike slip on an orthogonal fault, with unilateral rupture propagation along both. The mainshock ruptured a series of northwest–southeast‐trending faults with right‐lateral strike slip concentrated in the uppermost 6 km with exceptionally low‐rupture velocity averaging 1.01.5  km/s. A possible explanation for the low‐rupture velocity is that the mainshock rupture expended relatively high energy, generating secondary fractures in off‐fault deformation, which is consistent with field and seismic evidence of plastic deformation on small fault strands adjacent to the main rupture trace.

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