Abstract

This study is an evaluation of the suitability of several declustering method for induced seismicity and their impacts on hazard analysis of the Oklahoma–Kansas region. We considered the methods proposed by Gardner and Knopoff (1974), Reasenberg (1985), Zaliapin and Ben‐Zion (2013), and the stochastic declustering method (Zhuang et al., 2002) based on the epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988, 1998). The results show that the choice of declustering method has a significant impact on the declustered catalog and the resulting hazard analysis of the Oklahoma–Kansas region. The Gardner and Knopoff method, which is currently implemented in the U.S. Geological Survey one‐year seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States, has unexpected features when used for this induced seismicity catalog. It removes 80% of earthquakes and fails to reflect the changes in background rates that have occurred in the past few years. This results in a slight increase in the hazard level from 2016 to 2017, despite a decrease in seismic activities in 2017. The Gardner and Knopoff method also frequently identifies aftershocks with much stronger shaking intensities than their associated mainshocks. These features are mostly due to the window method implemented in the Gardner and Knopoff method. Compared with the Gardner and Knopoff method, the other three methods are able to capture the changing hazard level in the region. However, the ETAS model potentially overestimates the foreshock effect and generates negligible probabilities of large earthquakes being mainshocks. The Reasenberg and Zaliapin and Ben‐Zion methods have similar performance on catalog declustering and hazard analysis. Compared with the ETAS method, these two methods are easier to implement and faster to generate the declustered catalog. The results from this study suggest that both Reasenberg and Zaliapin and Ben‐Zion declustering methods are suitable for declustering and hazard analysis for induced seismicity in the Oklahoma–Kansas region.

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