In a recent article, “Why Do Modern Probabilistic Seismic-Hazard Analyses Often Lead to Increased Hazard Estimates?,” Bommer and Abrahamson (2006) provided an excellent review on probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA) and its key issue: how the ground-motion variability is treated. Bommer and Abrahamson (2006) stated that “although several factors may contribute to the higher estimates of seismic hazard in modern studies, the main reason for these increases is that in the earlier studies the ground-motion variability was either completely neglected or treated in a way that artificially reduced its influence on the hazard estimated.” In other words, Bommer and Abrahamson (2006)...

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