The 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake yielded one of the largest amounts of near-source strong ground motion seismic data ever. We invert strong-motion seismograms to obtain a model for the space–time distribution of coseismic slip on the fault. To reduce noise in the inversion, we take into account local amplifications that affect each station by using records of the 1983 M 6.5 Coalinga earthquake. Site amplification correlates well with large peak ground velocities registered during the 2004 Parkfield mainshock. The inversion for a kinematic rupture model yields a nonunique solution; we therefore analyze various rupture models that explain the data equally well. Our preferred rupture model identifies a primary zone of high slip surrounding the hypocenter, where the maximum slip is 57 cm. A secondary slip area, over which contours are not well resolved, is located northwest of the hypocenter. The rupture speed is highly heterogeneous. We infer an average rupture velocity of ∼2.8 km/sec close to the hypocenter, and of ∼3.3 km/sec in the secondary region of large slip to the northwest of the hypocenter. By correlation of our rupture model with both microseismicity and velocity structure, we identify six patches on the fault plane that behave in seismically distinct ways.
Online material: Kinematic rupture model parameters.