We investigate the upper mantle shear-wave speed structure beneath the south Indian shield by measuring and modeling fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion. Observed phase velocities for the south Indian shield closely match those observed for the Canadian shield. We constrain the south Indian crust using published receiver function results and invert the dispersion data for upper mantle shear-wave structure. The ∼155-km-thick seismic lithosphere of the south Indian shield is composed of a 35 km-thick, two-layer crust and a ∼120-km-thick, high-velocity upper mantle lid. Beneath the Moho the average Sn wave speed is ∼4.7 km sec−1. Both Sn travel times data and the dispersion data suggest a positive sub-Moho shear-wave speed gradient. Beneath the seismic lithosphere there is a low- velocity layer where the shear-wave speed drops to ∼4.4 km sec−1.