The 21 September 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6) occurred on east-dipping shallow thrust faults that produced a high-relief surface rupture. Extraordinary surface breaks appeared that could be clearly traced for about 100 km across many counties. These thrust faults, the Chelungpu and Shihkang, are part of an active fold-and-thrust belt related to ongoing recent arc-continent collision. Measurement of slip vectors along the earthquake rupture indicates that the orientation of the maximum shear stress changed from a westward direction (N70-90°W) on the Chelungpu fault to a northwestward direction (N30-40°W) on the Shihkang fault. The stress field underwent a clockwise rotation of about 40° during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Near-rupture vertical displacements in the hanging wall of the Shihkang fault have more cumulative displacement than on the Chelungpu fault, which is consistent with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Maximum vertical offset on the rupture was found to be about 10 m by the surficial rupture and GPS measurements. In addition, analysis of crustal deformation by GPS measurements on the hanging wall defines a coseismic uplift related to a fault ramp structure.
Our synthesis of geological and geodetic analyses shows the importance of ramp structures associated with thrust faults for generating large earthquakes and provides a general framework for understanding earthquake in fold-and-thrust belts. Large surficial coseismic uplift and strong asperities appear to be a function of fault ramp geometry. Our analysis also indicates that, in general, ramp structures in fold-and-thrust belts may have a high potential in generating large earthquakes.