Abstract

Fourteen GEOS seismic recorders were deployed in the San Bernardino Valley to study the propagation of short-period (T ≈ 1 to 3 sec) surface waves and Moho reflections. Three dense arrays were used to determine the direction and speed of propagation of arrivals in the seismograms. The seismograms for a shallow (d ≈ 1 km) M 4.9 aftershock of the Big Bear earthquake exhibit a very long duration (60 sec) of sustained shaking at periods of about 2 sec. Array analysis indicates that these late arrivals are dominated by surface waves traveling in various directions across the Valley. Some energy is arriving from a direction 180° from the epicenter and was apparently reflected from the edge of the Valley opposite the source. A close-in aftershock (Δ = 25 km, depth = 7 km) displays substantial short-period surface waves at deep-soil sites. A three-dimensional (3D) finite difference simulation produces synthetic seismograms with durations similar to those of the observed records for this event, indicating the importance of S-wave to surface-wave conversion near the edge of the basin. Flat-layered models severely underpredict the duration and spectral amplification of this deep-soil site. I show an example where the coda wave amplitude ratio at 1 to 2 Hz between a deep-soil and a rock site does not equal the S-wave amplitude ratio, because of the presence of surface waves in the coda of the deep-soil site. For one of the events studied (Δ ≈ 90 km), there are sizable phases that are critically reflected from the Moho (PmP and SmS). At one of the rock sites, the SmS phase has a more peaked spectrum that the direct S wave.

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