Abstract

Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 × 10−2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Simultaneous observations establish that the strain detection bandwidth extends from periods greater than 107 seconds to periods near 5 × 10−2 sec with a dynamic range exceeding 140 dB. Measurements of earth-strain noise for the period band, 107 to 10−2 sec, show that ground noise, not instrument noise, currently limits the measurement of strain over a bandwidth of more than eight orders of magnitude in period. Comparison of the short-period portion of earth-strain, noise spectra (20 to 5 × 10−2 sec) with average spectra determined from pendulum seismometers, suggest that observed noise is predominantly dilatational energy. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflected P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. Estimates of these parameters derived for the North Palm Springs earthquake (Mw 5.9) respectively for an incident P wave of 29° are −85°, 1.71, 2.9 km/sec, and for an incident S wave of 17° are 79°, 0.85, 2.9 km/sec. The empirical estimates of reflection coefficients are consistent with model estimates derived using an anelastic half-space model with incident inhomogeneous wave fields.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.